III  2023/2024 . .
2024 -
  "  "

English version Russian version


3(44) 2018


M. Vengerova, Moscow Institute of Architecture (State Academy), Moscow, Russia

Abstract The existing variety of proportions in the plans of ancient Russian temples of the 10th-15th centuries is explained by various geometric outlines of the solution of the symbolic task for Christianity "quadrature of the circle" as an image of alignment before the will of God's fullness of "heaven" and "earth", since the circle is a symbol of "heaven", and square the "land". In multi-nave cathedrals, a symbolic solution of this problem is also revealed when the structural core is located in the center of the structure and is a simple type of a nine-cathedral Middle Byzantine temple with characteristic proportions 10:13. The article is devoted to the analysis of the proportions of churches having other numerical values to answer the question: are such variations the development of previously discovered schemes? It has been clarified by the examples of three-nave nine-celled temples that such proportions of interior spaces as 20:21, 10:12, 10:14, 10:15 are a utilitarian modification of the original systems of constructing equal in area squares and squares. A simple, one-dimensional, practical way of dimensioning the dimensions of the structural core of the temple with proportions of 10:13 was also found.
Keywords: architecture, geometry, proportions, Ancient Russian, the quadrature of circle, church, Christianity
article Article (RUS)
  1. References

  1. Vengerova M.E. Solution of the problem of “squaring the circle” in geometric proportioning of ancient Russian churches of XXV centuries. Architecture and Modern Information Technologies. 1(38), 2017, pp. 138148. Available at: http://marhi.ru/AMIT/2017/1kvart17/vengerova/index.php
  2. Vengerova M. «The Life Giving Pillar» as the B asis for Proportions of Ancient Russian Churches of the X-XV-th Centuries. Architecture and Modern Information Technologies, 2018, no. 1(42), pp. 24-46. Available at: http://marhi.ru/eng/AMIT/2018/1kvart18/01_vengerova/index.php
  3. Bozhestvennaya liturgiya svyatitelya Ioanna Zlatousta: s parallelnym perevodom na russkiy yazyk [The Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom: with the parallel translation into the Russian language. Ed. Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeev) of Volokamsk]. Moscow, 2016.
  4. Zubova M.V. Istoriya arkhitektury Vizantii i Zapadnoy Evropy. Srednie veka [History of architecture in Byzantium and Western Europe. The middle ages. Ed.Y.N.Gerasimov]. Moscow, 2011.
  5. Gregory the Theologian, Archbishop of Constantinople, Collection of works in2volumes. Vol. 2, The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, 1994.
  6. Robert G. Ousterhout. The Kariye Camii: An Introduction. Available at: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/wallach/exhibitions/Byzantium/pdf/ousterhout_intro.pdf
  7. Pokrov na Nerli (XII vek), sost. M.I. Rzyanin [The intercession on the Nerl (XII century), ed. M. I. Rzyanin] Monuments of Russian architecture. USSR Academy of architecture theory and history of architecture. Moscow, 1941.
  8. Ousterhaut Robert. Vizantijskie stroiteli [Ousterhout, Robert. The Byzantine builders]. Kiev, Moscow, 2005.
  9. Moskovskij Kreml', cerkov' Rizpolozheniya [The Moscow Kremlin, the Church of deposition of the robe. Dimensioned drawings from CJSC "Gettimer". From the archive FGBUK "State historical and cultural Museum-reserve Moscow Kremlin]. Moscow, 2003.
  10. GNIMA im. A.V. Shchuseva, R V 2503/1. Cerkov' Spasa na Neredice [Church of the Savior on Nereditsa. Plan on. 0.00. The restoration project, Special Project-restoration workshop of the Committee for architectural Affairs of the USSR, head of the workshop of the architect. Davydov S. N., State scientific-research Museum of a name of Shchusev, R V 2503/1]. Moscow, 1947-48.
  11. Vengerova M.E. Krugatura kvadrata i postroenie vnutrennikh gabaritnykh proportsiy drevnerusskikh khramov XXV vekov [Squaring the circle and the construction of the inner dimensional proportions of ancient churches in XXV centuries’. Actual problems of the Orthodox Church architecture: history and modernity: materials of the I International scientific-practical conference. Yoshkar-Ola]. 2014, Yoshkar-Ola, Volga State University of Technology, 2014, pp. 302323.
  12. Svjatitel' Simeon, arhiepiskop Solunskij. Objasnenie svjashhennyh obrjadov i Tainstv Cerkvi [Sainted Simeon, Archbishop of Thessalonica. The explanation of the Holy rites and Sacraments of the Church]. Moscow, 2013, 640 p.
  13. John Moschus, of blessed. Lug duhovnyj: dostopamyatnye skazaniya o podvizhnichestve svyatyh i blazhennyh otcov [The spiritual meadow: memorable stories of the asceticism of the saints and blessed fathers. Blessed John Moschus. Pens. With the Greek. Prot. M. I. Khitrova]. Moscow, 2016.
  14. Robert Curzon. Plan of the church of The Holy Sepulchre. 1834. Robert Curzon. Visits to Monasteries in the Levant [ 1834 .]. London, John Murray, Albemarle street, 1849, 454 p. Available at: https://archive.org/stream/visitstomonaster00curz#page/n7/mode/2up
  15. Severin H.-G., Grossmann P. Frühchristlihe und Byzantinische bauten in südostlichen Lykien. Tübingen: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, 2003, 180 p.
  16. Rybakov B. A. Arhitekturnaya matematika drevnerusskih zodchih [Architectural mathematics of ancient architects. Magazine Soviet archaeology]. 1957, no. 1, pp. 83-112. Available at: http://tehne.com/node/1732
  17. Rybakov B.A. Merilo novgorodskogo zodchego XIII veka [Measure Novgorod architect of the XIII century. The Monuments of culture. New discovery. Written language. Art. Archaeology. Yearbook, 1974, pp. 205-218]. Available at: http://www.icon-art.info/bibliogr_item.php?id=3784
  18. Charles Merrick Gay, Harry Parker. Materials and Methods of Architectural Construction. New York, Sohnwiley & Sons, Inc, 1944, 624 p.
  19. Afanas'ev K.N. Postroenie arhitekturnoj formy drevnerusskimi zodchimi [Creation of an architectural form by Old Russian architects]. Moscow, 2002, 276 p.

For citation

Vengerova M. Background of Proportioning of Structural Cores in Ancient Russian Christian Temples of the XXV Centuries. Architecture and Modern Information Technologies, 2018, no.3(44), pp.331-345. Available at: http://marhi.ru/eng/AMIT/2018/3kvart18/20_vengerova/index.php