ARCHITECTURE AND MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC - EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL ON SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL-METHODICAL ASPECTS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AND DESIGNING WITH THE USAGE OF VIDEO AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES
|Article||THE HISTORY EVOLUTION OF THE TRADE CENTERS|
|Authors||K. Zorin, Moscow Institute of Architecture (State academy), Moscow, Russia|
|Abstract|| The modern history of trade centers is divided into several stages and begins in the second half of
the 18th century. The starting point for this type of structures can be considered to be the first
passages. Paris was the birthplace of the passage. During the first half of the 19th century, they
appeared in all the countries of Europe and North America. Further development of the passage
was due to the construction of Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London in 1851. New planning
guidelines and building technologies transformed the passages and it can be seen in the Galleria
Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan.
In the late 19th century a new type of retail stores appeared - department store. Its principal difference from the passages is expressed in number of floors and more modern principles of trade, which is shown in zoning of the planning decisions of this type of structures. Symbolic object which generated new standards of construction and determined the immutable principles of construction of large shopping malls has become the Rockefeller Center in New York City.
Further development of retail buildings has led to the creation of large shopping centers located outside the city. This type of construction is called mall. The modern history of malls is divided into three stages. As a result, a formed system of trading centers has influenced not only on the
traditional way of life, but also on culture, which gives the full right to classify shopping centers as the significant structures of our time.
|Keywords:||first passages, Crystal Palace, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, first department stores, progress of the mall|