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3(20) 2012

English version Russian version


Authors V. Shemyakina, Moscow Institute of Architecture (State academy), Moscow, Russia
Abstract The housing estate is the largest and important component of a city. In comparison with other components it is exposed to regular reorganization and reconstruction. Residential buildings decay much faster others. The housing estate is reflexion of quality of a life that also becomes the reason of updating of an available housing on habitation meeting the requirements on each stage.

Thereupon considerable interest is represented by new cities of Great Britain of the first and second generation in which the most progressive decisions on formation of structure of inhabited communities were initially put. Forms of inhabited communities were projected according to time, conditions and the purposes which were put at designing of cities at this or that stage.

The general in all forms is the principle of a cell with the local centre, a role of foot availability to the local centre, stops of public transport, objects of a social and public infrastructure, and also low building, mainly with individual gardens.

In cities of the second generation, structures capable to growth in the conditions of increasing transport activity were projected and a paramount problem was to find the optimum scheme of transport networks providing free throughput on all city. Building was projected in dependence and in interrelation with transport networks. The basic areas on size correspond to the size of micro district of the average size, also are subdivided into inhabited groups and had the centre. Residential buildings are located on distance of foot availability to the centre and public transport stops. In all cities initial for definition of the size of the basic residential areas indicators of optimum distance and passage time on foot from the house to stops and social objects are accepted. In Runcorn time made 5 minutes, and distance about 500 yards (457), in Redditch as an indicator of calculation of the size and density of inhabited communities time 7 - 10 minutes of walking from a universal route was accepted. Basic difference of a lay-out of areas from micro districts (specially isolated from each other), this aspiration to physical both visual coordination and

association of communities by means of transport and foot networks, objects of an infrastructure and the main facades of the inhabited groups focused on transport roads and axes. It has remained in the present. Also actual there were some transport decisions for example a bus route busway in Runcorn. Its greatest efficiency is provided, when the quantity and a site of routes are in interrelation with all necessary points of daily ability to live of inhabitants. The form of an orthogonal grid, for example in Milton Keynes is recognized the most effective for distribution of transport streams, creation of visual and physical communications in city structure.

The later the city was projected, the it is more quantity and version of objects of an infrastructure entered into structure of residential areas. The increasing role was taken away availability of these objects and objects of employment by means of public transport and foot moving. At comparison of the design offer and existing position the tendency to association of areas by means of such objects and formation of axes is traced.

At the present stage, in the conditions of transition to a sustainable development, occurs not only introduction of objects of a various infrastructure in residential areas, and association of functional territories in multipurpose communities which provide to inhabitants to work and use an infrastructure using viable ways of moving (foot, bicycle and the high-quality public transport integrated with all necessary, demanded and unique places of a city) with possibility of a choice. The structure of communities is developed taking into account opinion of inhabitants and community business.
Keywords: Great Britain, New Town, Master plan, Neighborhood, Environmental area, Multipurpose community, Development
article Article (RUS)
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