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2(19) 2012


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ARCHITECTURE AND MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC - EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL ON SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL-METHODICAL ASPECTS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AND DESIGNING WITH THE USAGE OF VIDEO AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES


Article TOWN-PLANNING STRUCTURES OF NEW CITIES OF GREAT BRITAIN CONSTRUCTED FOR ENLIGHTENING OF BIG CITIES AND REGIONS AND SUPPORT OF UNSUCCESSFUL AREAS
Authors V. Shemyakina, Moscow Institute of Architecture (State academy), Moscow, Russia
Abstract Town-planning structures of new cities of Great Britain designed and constructed during the period from 1930 for 1970 for enlightening of big cities and regions and support of unsuccessful areas are considered. The basic attention is given intermediate stage cities - Cumbernauld (1955); a new part of city Peterlee - South West Area (1955); Hook (1961), and to cities of the second generation - Skelmersdale (1961), Dawley (1961), Portsmouth (1961), Livingston (1962), Washington (1964), Runcorn (1964), Redditch (1964), Swindon Ipswich (1966), Irvine North Ayrshire (1966), Caersws (1966), Telford (1963 1972), Milton Keynes (1967), Peterborough (1967), Northampton (1968), Warrington (1968), Preston (1970), and main national areas of growth Tayside (1967-1970), Humberside (1966-1969) and Severnside (1967-1971). In overwhelming majority of cases irrespective of time and the city site, the planned population has not been reached that is caused by impossibility of the account of specificity of the future population and economy on a design stage. It is revealed that designing of cities with the fixed borders, structure of neigbourhoods with the inhabited groups turned into courtyards, rigid monozoning of a city and the centre, and as centralised cities with the multilevel centres and the maximum relative densities in the centre as Cumbernauld is not expedient. Linear cities and linear structure of the centre with concentration in them of social and public functions and the minimum placing of such objects in residential areas have appeared not effective in the conditions of growth and prevalence of private transport as in Skelmersdale, Hook other linear cities based on the maximum use of private transport. In the majority of cities of the second generation of a highway, underground transitions and bridges have created physical and visual barriers to moving of pedestrians and bicyclists. The form of a uniform axis of highways has not provided the necessary throughput. As there was not justified a designing of the cities calculated on maximum use of private transport. Rather effective have appeared cellular structure of cities with communities of 5000-8000 inhabitants and the local centres, for example as in Runcorn and Telford, orientation of the main facades of residential buildings to city streets, instead of inside and placing of objects of trade and an infrastructure in affinity of roads, system of independent bus routes of type Busway in Runcorn, and as system of knots of communications, as points of social activity, for example in Milton - Keynes.
Keywords: Regional planning, New Town, Masterplan, Development
article Article (RUS)
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