III  2024/2025 . .
2024 -
  "  "
 / English site / AMIT / 2011 / 2kvart11

2(15) 2011

English version Russian version


Hypothetical Computer Reconstruction of Nag el-Hagar Fortress in Egypt
Authors Dmitry A. Karelin, Chief architect of TMA Kozhushanogo, Moscow, Russia
Abstract This work is dedicated to the computer reconstruction of Roman fortress Nag el-Hagar in Egypt. This fortification was situated to the south of Luxor (ancient Thebes), not far from Kom Ombo (ancient Ombos). Apparently the fortress was built during Diocletians rule. Its architectural features are similar to other examples of Roman military architecture of the period of tetrarchy in Egypt. We chose Nag el-Hagar for the reconstruction because this fortress is a specimen of the classical Roman castrum which belongs to the period of Diocletian and at the same time it has some original architectural features. The remains of the palace of the Governor or a military commander which we can find inside the fortress are of a great interest to specialists in late Roman architecture. In this work we consider similar examples of late Roman military architecture both in Egypt and throughout the Roman Empire. Their architectural peculiarities give us the idea how the fortress and the palace in Nag el-Hagar could look like. Beside that, we have made an attempt to examine some problems of computer 3D reconstructions in general. This computer reconstruction of Nag el-Hagar shows that a late Roman fortress in Egypt was a majestic ensemble and its architectural and planning features were influenced not only by its military function, but also by the artistic concepts of the late Roman architects who built it.
Keywords: Nag el-Hagar, Egypt, Rome, fortress, late Roman, late antique, Late Antiquity, tetrarchy, Diocletian, computer, reconstruction, fortification, palace
article Article
  1. Notitia Dignitatum. Was published with commentaries by Otto Seeck: Seeck O. Notitia Dignitatum: accedunt Notitia urbis onstantinopolitanae et Laterculi provinciarum. Berolini, 1876 (repr. Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1962).
  2. Vitruvius. De Architectura libri decem. English translation by F. Granger (Vitruvius. On Architecture. London, 1931), Russian translation by F. A. Petrovskij (Vitruvij. Desjat' knig ob arhitekture. Moskva: Izd-vo Vsesojuznoj Akademii arhitektury, 1936).
  3. Mauricius. Strategikon. English translation by G.T. Dennis (Mauricos. Strategikon, Handbook of Byzantine Military Strategy. Philadelphia, 1984), Russian translation by V.V. Kuchma (Mavrikij. Strategikon. Sankt-Peterburg: Aletejja, 2004).
  4. Karelin D.A. Rimskaja fortifikacionnaja arhitektura v Egipte. I vek do n.je. - V vek n.je. Diss. kand. iskusstvovedenija. Moskva, 2010.
  5. Karelin D.A. Planirovochnaja struktura dvorca v rimskoj kreposti Nag el-Hagar v Egipte (III-V veka n.e.) v kontekste zhiloj arhitektury pozdnej antichnosti // Klimenko S.V. (ed.) Istorija arhitektury i gradostroitel'stva. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii MARHI Nauka, obrazovanie i eksperimental'noe proektirovanie; 12-16 aprelja 2010 g.: Tezisy dokladov sekcii 4. Moskva: MAKS Press, 2010. P. 9-11.
  6. Karelin D.A. Predvaritel'naja rekonstrukcija rimskoj kreposti Nag el'-Hagar v Egipte // Molodye ob iskusstve. Nauchnye raboty aspirantov i soiskatelej NII teorii i istorii izobrazitel'nyh iskusstv RAH. Vyp. 2. (in print).
  7. Arce J., Chavarria A., Ripoll G. The Urban Domus in Late Antique Hispania // Lavan L., Özgenel L. (eds.) Housing in Late Antiquity. From Palaces to Shops. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007. P. 305-336.
  8. Arnold D. The Pyramid Complex of Senwosret III at Dahshur: Architectural Studies (The Metropolitan Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition. Vol. 26). New York: Yale University Press, 2002.
  9. Arnold D. Middle Kingdom Tomb Architecture at Lisht (The Metropolitan Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition. Vol. 28). New York: Yale University Press, 2008.
  10. Badawi A. Notes architecturales // ASAE 46. Cairo, 1947. P. 357-371.
  11. Brünnow E.R., Domaszewski A. Die Provincia Arabia I-III. Strassburg: Verlag von Karl J. Trübner, 1904-1909.
  12. Butler H.C. Syria. Section A. Leyden: Late E.J. BRILL Ltd, 1919.
  13. Ćurčić S. Late-Antique Palaces: The Meaning of Urban Context // Ars Orientalis 23. Ann Arbor, 1993. P. 67-90.
  14. Ćurčić S. Architecture in the Balkans from Diocletian to Süleyman the Magnificent. New Heaven-London: Yale University Press, 2010.
  15. Crawford P. The Horreum at el-Lejjun (Area M) // Parker S.T. (ed.) The Roman Frontier in Central Jordan. Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project 1980-1989 (Dumbarton Oaks Studies 40). Vol. 1. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2006. P. 235-240.
  16. Donaldson T.L. Ancient Architecture on Greek and Roman Coins and Medals. Chicago: Argonaut Publishers, 1965.
  17. Ellis S. P. The Palace of the Dux at Apollonia and Related Houses // Barker G., Lloyd J., Reynolds J. (eds). Cyrenaica in Antiquity (BAR International Series 236). Oxford: BAR, 1985. P. 1547.
  18. Ellis S.P. The End of the Roman House // AJA 92. Boston, 1988. P. 565-576.
  19. Ellis S.P. Classical Reception Rooms in Romano-British Houses // Britannia 26. London, 1995. P. 163-178.
  20. Ellis S.P. Late-Antique Dining: Architecture, Furnishings and Behaviour // Laurence R., Wallace-Hadrill A. (eds.) Domestic Space in the Roman World: Pompeii and Beyong (JRA Supplementary Series Number 22). Portsmouth, RI: JRA, 1997. P. 41-52.
  21. Ellis S.P. Roman Housing. London: Duckworth, 2000.
  22. Ellis S.P. Shedding Light on Late Roman Housing // Lavan L., Özgenel L. (eds.) Housing in Late Antiquity. From Palaces to Shops. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007. P. 283-302.
  23. El-Bialy M., Mackensen M. Report on the Second Season of the Egyptian-Swiss Joint Mission at the Late Roman Fort at Nag el-Hagar // ASAE 81. Cairo, 2007. P. 39-46.
  24. El-Bialy M., von Kienlin A. Report on the Third Season of the Egyptian-Swiss Joint Mission at the Late Roman Fort at Nag el-Hagar // ASAE 82. Cairo, 2008. P. 61-66.
  25. El-Maqsoud M.A. The Late Roman Army Castrum at Pelusium (Tell el-Farama) // CRIPEL 16. Lille, 1994. P. 95-103.
  26. El-Saghir M., Golvin J-C., Reddé M., El-Sayed H., Wagner G. Le camp romain de Louqsor (MIFAO 83). Le Caire: IFAO, 1986.
  27. Goodchild R.G. A Byzantine Palace at Apollonia (Cyrenaica) // Antiquity 34. York, 1965. P. 246-258.
  28. Ghedini F., Bullo S. Late Antique Domus of Africa Proconsularis // Lavan L., Özgenel L. (eds.) Housing in Late Antiquity. From Palaces to Shops. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007. P. 337-366.
  29. Gregory S. Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier. Vols. 1-3. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1995-1997.
  30. Gregory S. Was there an Eastern Origins for the Design of Late Roman Fortifications? Some Problems for Research on Forts of Romes Eastern Frontier // Kennedy D.L. (ed.) The Roman Army in the East (JRA Supplementary Series Number 18). Ann Arbor, MI: JRA, 1996. P. 169-210.
  31. Grossmann, P. Zu dem angeblichen befestigten Kloster über der Südmauer von al-Kāb // BSAA 47., 2003. P.113125.
  32. Grossmann P., Le Quesne Ch., Sheehan P. Zur römischen Festung von Babylon Alt-Kairo // AA 1994. 2. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. S. 271-287.
  33. Grossmann P., Jones M., Noeske H-C., Le Quesne Ch., Sheehan P. Zweiter Bericht über die britisch-deutschen Grabungen in der römischen Festung von Babylon Alt-Kairo // AA 1998. 1. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1998. S. 173-207.
  34. Ivanov T. Archäologische Forschungen in Abrittus (19531961) // Acta Antiqua Philippopolitana. Studia Archaeologica. Sofia, 1963. P. 8193.
  35. Jaritz H., Mustafa M. A Roman Fortress at Nag el-Hagar. Preliminary report // ASAE 70. Cairo, 1984-85. P. 21-31.
  36. Johnson S. The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore. London: Elek, 1976.
  37. Johnson S. Late Roman Fortifications. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1983.
  38. Karnapp. W. Die Stadtmauer von Resafa in Syrien. Berlin: Verlag Walter de Gruyter & CO, 1976.
  39. von Kienlin A. Der Palast im spätrömischen Kastell von Nag el-Hagar // Koldewey-Gesellschaft. Bericht über die 44. Tagung für Ausgrabungswissenschaft und Bauforschung vom 24. bis 28. Mai 2006 in Wroclaw/Breslau. Bonn, 2008. S. 118-128.
  40. Lander J. Roman Stone Fortifications. Variations and Change from First Century A.D. to the Fourth (BAR International Series 206). Oxford: BAR, 1984.
  41. Lavan L. The Praetoria of Civil Governors in Late Antiquity // Lavan L. (ed.) Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism (JRA Supplementary Series Number 42). Portsmouth, RI: JRA, 2001. P. 39-56.
  42. Lavin I. The House of the Lord: Aspects of the Role of Palace Triclinia in the Architecture of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages // The Art Bulletin 44. New York, 1962. P. 1-27.
  43. MacDonald W.L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire. Vol II: An Urban Appraisal. New Heaven - London: Yale University Press, 1986.
  44. Mackensen M. The Late Roman Fort at Nag el-Hagar near Kom Ombo in the Province of Thebaïs (Upper Egypt) // MDAIK 62. Berlin-New York, 2006. S. 161-193.
  45. Mackensen M. Late Roman African red slip ware from the frontier region in the province of Thebaïs (Upper Egypt) // Wilson R.J.A. (ed.) Romanitas: Essays on Roman Archaeology in Honour of Sheppard Frere on the Occasion of his Ninetieth Birthday. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006. P. 211-229.
  46. Mackensen M. The Tetrarchic Fort at Nag el-Hagar in the Province of Thebaïs: Preliminary Report (2005-08) // JRA 22. Portsmouth, 2009. P. 286-312.
  47. McNally S. The Architectural Ornament of Diocletian's Palace at Split (BAR International Series 639). Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1996.
  48. Mulvin L. Late Roman Villas in the Danube-Balkan Region (BAR International Series 1064). Oxford: Archaeopress, 2002.
  49. Musil A. Palmyrena. A Topographical Itinerary. New-York: American Geographical Society, 1928.
  50. Özgenel L. Public Use and Privacy in Late Antique Houses in Asia Minor: The Architecture of Spatial Control // Lavan L., Özgenel L. (eds.) Housing in Late Antiquity. From Palaces to Shops. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007. P. 265-266.
  51. Petrikovits H. von. Fortifications in the North-Western Roman Empire from the Third to the Fifth Centuries A.D. // JRS 61. London, 1971. P. 178-218.
  52. Reddé M. Dioclétien et les fortifications militaires de l'Antiquité tardive. Quelques considérations de méthode // AnTard 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 1995. P. 91-124.
  53. Rostovtzeff M.I. Excavation at Dura-Europos. Part III: The Palace of the Dux Ripae and the Dolicheneum. New Heaven: Yale University Press, 1952.
  54. Schwartz J. Qasr-Qarun/Dionysias, 1950. Le Caire: IFAO, 1969.
  55. Schneider A.M., Karnapp W. Die Stadtmauer von Iznik (Nicaea). Berlin: İstanbuler Forschungen, 1938.
  56. Segal A. From Function to Monument. Urban Landscape of Roman Palestine, Syria and Provincia Arabia. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1997.
  57. Sheehan P. The Roman Fortress of Babylon in Old Cairo // Bailey D. M. (ed.) Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt (JRA Supplementary Series Number 19). Ann Arbor, MI: JRA, 1996. P. 95-97.
  58. Sheehan P. Babylon of Egypt: The Archaeology of Old Cairo and the Origins of the City. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2010.
  59. Sidebotham S. Preliminary Report on the 1990-1991 Seasons of Fieldwork at Abu Shaar (Red Sea Coast) // JARCE 31. Cairo, 1994. P. 159-168.
  60. Sidebotham S.E., Hense M., Hendrikje M.N. The Red Land. The Illustrated Archaeology of Egypts Eastern Desert. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2008.
  61. Southern P., Dixon K.R. Late Roman Army. London: Routledge, 2000 (First published by B. T. Batsford Ltd., 1996).
  62. de Vries B., Goodwin V., Lain A. The Fortifications of el-Lejjun (Area C) // Parker S.T. (ed.) The Roman Frontier in Central Jordan. Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project 1980-1989 (Dumbarton Oaks Studies 40). Vol. 1. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2006. P. 187-212.
  63. Ward-Perkins J.B. Roman Imperial Architecture. New Heaven-London: Yale University Press, 1994 (First published by Penguin Books Ltd. 1981).
  64. Wareth U., Zignani P. Nag al-Hagar. A Fortress with a Palace of the Late Roman Empire // BIFAO 92. Le Caire: IFAO, 1992. P. 185-210.
  65. Wilkes J.J. Diocletians Palace, Split: Residence of a Retired Roman Emperor (2nd ed.). Sheffield: Ian Sanders Memorial Fund, 1993 (first ed. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 1986).
  66. The Museum of Reconstructions (http://www.reconstructions.org)